The main purpose of emission inventories is to account for emissions from anthropogenic sources into the atmosphere. There are two separate inventories for greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and various fluorinated gases) and for other air pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, ammonia, non-methane volatile organic compounds, particulate matters, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants).
The whole time series of the inventories are updated frequently in order to continuously improve the accuracy and maintain the consistency of estimation of emissions. The quality of the inventories is annually inspected by international experts, as data should prove compliance with international treaties, and where appropriate, those can entail economics consequences as well.
Inventory of greenhouse gases
Pursuant to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Hungary, as a Party of the Convention, has been preparing annual inventories of greenhouse gas emissions using the IPCC methodology since 1994. The aim of a greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is to give an as complete and accurate as possible state of the art estimation of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removal by sinks of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. In accordance with the Kyoto Protocol, the following direct greenhouse gases are taken into account: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). The quality of the inventory is controlled by Hungarian and international experts regularly.
The GHG inventory is compiled by the Hungarian Meteorological Service as laid down by a government decree. The participation of the National Land Centre (NLC) together with the NARIC Forest Research Institute and the National Food Chain Safety Office (NFCSO) as compilers of the whole LULUCF sector is formalized by the same governmental decree. Also, other institutions and external experts are involved in the process of inventory preparation, e.g. the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority, just to name a few.
The main purpose of this National Inventory Report is to describe the input data and calculation methodologies on which the emissions estimates are based thus increasing the transparency of the inventory. The present report refers to the inventory time series for the years 1985-2019. The NIR provides relevant background information on institutional arrangements, QA/QC procedures and other information underlying the inventory compilation in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 the trends for aggregated greenhouse gas emissions are discussed. The chapters following provide detailed information on each of the main source categories. Chapter 10 discusses details of recalculations and planned improvements. In the Annexes key category analysis and complementary methodological information can be found.
Inventory of air pollutants
In order to reduce the consequences of air pollution, the Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution was drawn up in 1979, which was the first environmental convention on air pollution (UNECE-CLRTAP). Article 8 of the Convention states that "Parties to the Convention shall provide information on emissions of specified air pollutants for specified periods." that is, the parties must also prepare an inventory of air pollutants. Hungary is a party to the Convention.
The inventory of air pollutants is compiled by the Hungarian Meteorological Service as laid down by a government decree. The inventory is compiled each year, for which the time series starts from 1990, and includes data for the following substances up to the 2nd year preceding the reference year:
- main pollutants (NOx, SOx, NMVOC, NH3, CO
- particulate matters (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, BC)
- heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se, Zn)
- organic pollutants (NMVOC, POPs, PAHs)
The reporting obligations set out in the Convention and its various Protocols shall be complied with in accordance with the content of the UNECE LRTAP Convention guidelines for estimating and reporting emission data (ECE/EB.AIR/97). In 1999, the UNECE adopted a protocol to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone (Gothenburg Protocol), which set national emission ceilings for 2010 up to 2020 and 2030 for four air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NMVOC, NH3). The national ceilings appear in domestic law. Governmental decree 306/2010 (XII. 23.) on the protection of air can be read at this link.
Detailed information on these pollutants can be found in the Trends menu.